Regulación e innovación en el Perú: ¿es necesario regular las nuevas tecnologías?

En un mundo globalizado donde la innovación se desarrolla rápidamente, se ha abierto el debate de si la regulación para las industrias digitales es necesaria o solo limita su desarrollo y alcance en el país

 

 

 

 

En un mundo globalizado donde la tecnología cambia constantemente, se ha abierto el debate sobre la regulación de la industria digital. El mercado peruano no es ajeno a esta disyuntiva, en el que las ‘fintech’—empresas que brindan servicios financieros ligados a las innovaciones tecnológicas—, se han convertido en las principales socias de las PYMES y también de las grandes empresas, según las estadistas del mercado.

Durante los últimos 100 años no hubo grandes desarrollos respecto a la tecnología del teléfono, un mismo aparato con discado podía ser heredado de familia a familia, con una vida útil muy larga.

¿Es necesario regular un mercado que cambia muy rápido?, ¿se regula para proteger a los consumidores o para custodiar la competencia? ¿en qué momento se debe empezar a regular? Estas preguntas fueron respondidas por especialistas peruanos en el marco del Summit Developers Digitales Perú 2019, organizado por Emprende UP.

Sin embargo, ahora es casi imposible utilizar los primeros celulares «inteligentes» que maravillaron al mundo. Una tecnología de hace 20, 10 o inclusive dos años atrás puede ser ahora obsoleta. «Ya no funcionan con ciertas redes como la 4G o LTE, están basados en redes de primera o segunda generación que incluyen más que una opción de hacer llamadas», advierte Lorenzo Villegas-Carrasquilla, socio del área tecnología medios y comunicaciones de CMS.

 

 

 

En este sentido, se vuelve vital pensar si la regulación puede «seguirle» el paso al desarrollo tecnológico y si efectivamente la regulación incentiva la innovación, o si por el contrario, la limita.

Para Ljubica Vonadovic, líder del área de regulación de mercados financieros y fintech de la división legal de EY, la regulación siempre se quedará atrás porque la tecnología avanza a otro ritmo. No obstante, asegura, el regulador puede tomar acción: O bien busca crear un marco regulatorio u observa el desarrollo del mercado local para evitar caer en una sobrerregulación.

Para la socia de EY, en el sector financiero el regulador peruano está optando acertadamente por la segunda opción, mirando y actuando en los aspectos que sean necesarios. «Es por eso que no tenemos a todos los negocios ‘fintech’ regulados, sino que el gobierno está aprendiendo cómo se desarrolla el mundo ‘fintech'», dijo.

En esta línea, Angie Umezama, socia de Sumara Hub Legal, la regulación debería orientarse a las empresas que busquen formar monopolios o que tengan barreras de entrada significativas.

 

Asimismo, Carlos Guerrero, senior policy analyst de la ONG Hiperderecho, señaló no se debería regular aquello que funciona ya que la regulación no siempre implica crear leyes o aplicar prohibiciones.

“La regulación inteligente implica que muchos mercados se desarrollen porque cuando una tecnología está establecida, permite tener reglas claras para que los actores de ese mercado puedan desarrollar su actividad, no necesariamente prohibiendo, sino estableciendo normas de adecuación», dijo.

 

PROTEGER A LOS CONSUMIDORES:

Algunos de los argumentos que sostienen las autoridades reguladoras sobre las tecnologías y sus servicios, es la necesidad de proteger a los consumidores. Así, para Umezama, poniéndose en los zapatos de un consumidor, opina que las vías de reclamos son muy burocráticas y que muchas veces, no son eficientes.

 

 

 

Al mismo tiempo, destaca por ejemplo, la «autorregulación» que tienen muchas aplicaciones que les permiten ser más competitivas. «Todas mis quejas realizadas por una ‘app’ han sido resueltas casi en el acto, sin estar muchas veces reguladas», asegura.

Para Guerrero, este enfoque no es correcto ya que existe actualmente un código de protección al consumidor y que, partiendo de ello, muchas veces el exceso de regulación termina encareciendo el servicio de las empresas porque aumenta sus obligaciones.

En esta línea, Vodanovic no discute el hecho de que exista una regulación para proteger el consumidor, pero señala que esta no debería trabar la industria y la innovación.

«Sí es importante saber cómo hacerla y que no sea intrusiva. En el mundo financiero, por ejemplo, hay mucho riesgo, por ello, es necesario la regulación. No debemos verla como algo malo», afirmó.

 

¿CUÁNDO DEBERÍA EMPEZAR A REGULARSE EL MERCADO?

Continuando con el debate sobre si es o no necesaria la regulación, la pregunta clave que se hacen muchos reguladores es cuándo es necesario empezar a crear marcos normativos en un nuevo mercado o servicio.

Al respecto, el senior policy analyst de ONG Hiperderecho, sostiene que, si bien no piensa que los mercados se deban autorregular, “es cierto que la regulación debe ser flexible sobre todo donde hay nuevas industrias que están en procesos de transformación. Debemos pensar en cómo regular y que no se vuelva contraproducente«, señaló.

Asimismo, la socia de Sumara Hub Legal, explica que cuando hay muchos actores en un mismo mercado—las plataformas de Airbnb, por ejemplo— no solo se debe regular el servicio sino sobre toda la seguridad. «No sabemos quiénes son las personas con la que compartimos una casa alquilada, por ejemplo», dijo.

 

 

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